Voyages of Christopher Columbus and Treaty of Tordesillas. Naples spent about a third of its revenues on the military averaging about , ducats a year. It consisted of propaganda and some financial incentives to try and persuade women to have more children. In his last years he worked on applying the pendulum principle to develop a clock which was accomplished by the Dutch scientist Christiaan Huygens in Gradually there was less and less co-operation between the two halves. Zen became a senior official in Venice but was dismissed and banished for his arrogance and contempt. Alessandro Ludovisi studied law at the University of Bologna and became Archbishop of Bologna in and a cardinal in
The Roman sack of Sicily rises to its peak under the governorship of Verres, who Cicero prosecutes. When this failed, the Pope promised the Colonna family a pardon on August 22 if they restored the land they had seized and withdrew into the kingdom of Naples and promised not to make war in lands they held from the Church. In Borromeo sponsored a company of Ursulines in Milan to teach the catechism to girls. Many who paid for these offices did not even bother to work, and since fees paid to officials of the Roman court who did work had also doubled.
But almost as soon as his armies departed, the French returned and occupied Naples. People should avoid hateful pride. Make an Enquiry Order a Brochure. In , he also annexed Marche and Tuscany to the Kingdom of Italy. He is succeeded by Frederick II Stupor Mundi under whose reign poetry, science, law and medicine advance.
As recently as the s, the viceroy Domenico Caracciolo observed that Sicily was "inhabited only by either oppressors or the oppressed. Tragically, the same social tendencies cited during the Spanish era were noted by the British and Americans during the Allied occupation of , and some cynics have observed that little has changed to this day. In the French were forced to renounce their claims to Italy by the treaty of Cambrai. For those who enjoy comparing historical statistics, it's worth noting that into the nineteenth century, Naples and Palermo --not Rome and Milan-- were the wealthiest cities of "Italy," even if little of this wealth filtered into the hands of the masses. Yet the rebellion was crushed in Roads and other public works were created.